Historic Structures

Hammond-Harwood House, Annapolis Maryland

Annapolis is a town containing many distinguished 18th century houses. The Hammond-Harwood House, last of these to be completed, is more closely associated with William Buckland than either the Brice or Chase-Lloyd Houses. Contemporary documentation indicates that Buckland was here, perhaps for the first time, responsible, not only for the carving and interior decoration, but for the entire design of the building. A portrait by Charles Willson Peale, begun in 1773, shows Buckland holding a plan and front elevation of the house. A drawing of the house in Peale's Journal further indicates the deliberate selection of the Hammond-Harwood House as a suitable illustration of the highest achievement of Buckland's career. Built by Matthias Hammond, an elegant young lawyer who received most of his large income from fifty-four tobacco plantations, the house was probably begun in 1773 and completed the following year, 1774, also the year of Buckland's death. In the second half of the 19th century the house was occupied by the Harwood family. Then in 1926 it was sold at public auction to St. John's College, which used it as a residence. The Hammond-Harwood House Association purchased the property in 1940 and today it is open to the public as an historic house museum. As an outstanding example of Georgian architecture and a reflection of the talent of William Buckland, The Hammond-Harwood House is a remarkable survivor of the great achievement of American architecture at the end of the Colonial Period.

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Chase Lloyd House, Annapolis Maryland

The Chase-Lloyd House, 22 Maryland Avenue, Annapolis, Maryland, was built 1769-74 with interiors by William Buckland and is one of the first of the large, full-three-story brick Georgian town houses to be erected in the English colonies. Its every detail evidences an effort to achieve the ultimate in magnificance. The Chase-Lloyd House is not only the finest three-story brick Georgian town house in the Southern colonies, but it ranks with the finest similar structures in the Northern colonies, namely, the Reynolds-Morris House (1786-87) at Philadelphia, and the John Brown House (1768-87) at Providence, Rhode Island. The Chase-Lloyd House is also the only three-story brick town house erected in Annapolis prior to the Revolution. Construction of the Chase-Lloyd House was begun in 1769 by Samuel Chase, lawyer and one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. In July 1771 he sold the partially completed house to Edward Lloyd IV, wealthy Maryland planter and owner of the Wye House plantation, for nearly 3,000 pounds. In December 1771, Colonel Lloyd engaged the architect William Buckland, newly arrived at Annapolis, to complete the structure. Buckland worked on the project from 1771 to 1773 as did Annapolis architect William Noke who took over after Buckland withdrew. The elaborate plasterwork of the interior was executed by Rawlings and Barnes, who had arrived in town from London in 1771. The house remained in the hands of the Lloyd family until 1847, when it was sold to Miss Hester Ann Chase, a descendent of the owner who had started the residence. In 1888 a member of this family bequeathed the house to the Protestant Episcopal Church as a home for elderly women.

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Wisconsin Central Freight Station (Chicago Great Western), Minneapolis Minnesota

Because the riverfront in Minneapolis along the Mississippi River was crowded with existing railroad tracts and industrial buildings by the late nineteenth century, the Wisconsin Central Railway Company, which was desirous of trackage into the city had few choices of where to build facilities in Minneapolis. The Wisconsin Central Company, a predecessor of the Wisconsin Central Railway Company, had been operating in Wisconsin between northern Wisconsin, Milwaukee, and Chicago since 1870 hauling timber and ore from northern Wisconsin to market cities on Lake Michigan. After financial difficulties in the 1890s, it was reorganized between 1898-1900 as the Wisconsin Central Railway Company. It owned only 28 miles of trackage in Minnesota. The Wisconsin Central Railway Company had been leasing the rails of Minnesota carriers, such as the Northern Pacific and the Great Northern, to ship cattle from Montana and grain and flour from the Twin Cities through Minneapolis and St. Paul to Manitowoc, Milwaukee, and Chicago. Although this arrangement worked well, high trackage rentals and increasing business prompted the Wisconsin Central Railway Company in 1901 to build terminal facilities of its own in Minneapolis and St. Paul. The company, therefore, acquired two Minneapolis parcels for their use near the Mississippi River. Between 1901-1903, it built a large yard terminal on Boom Island north of Nicollet Island nearby the present freight station. The Boom Island yard was improved from low swampy land in the middle of the river. Improvements included fill, a stone retaining wall around the island, a rail yard which could accommodate over 300 cars, a roundhouse, coaling plant, ice houses, and limited repair facilities.

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Wiedemann Brewing Company, Newport Kentucky

The Wiedemann Brewing Company was founded by George Wiedemann. He immigrated to the United States from Germany in 1853. Initially living in New York State and after spending some time in Louisville, Kentucky, he moved to Cincinnati in 1855 when he entered the brewery business. In 1860, Mr. Wiedemann joined with John Kaufman in building a brewery on Vine Street in Cincinnati where he was appointed the foreman. In 1870 he became a partner with John Butcher, who was operating a small brewery on Jefferson Street in Newport, Kentucky. The business began to grow and soon became recognized as a major brewery in northern Kentucky and Cincinnati. In 1878 Wiedemann acquired the entire brewery and he continued to expand its operation. Over the years various buildings were constructed to meet the needs of the growing operation. In 1888 and 1889 construction of modern facilities was undertaken when several buildings were constructed including the Hops Storage building and the Malt House. With increase production capacity, the brewery began to command a greater share of the market. During the period before the turn of the century, Wiedemann acquired several smaller breweries. With these acquitions, the brewery established itself as the major brewery serving northern Kentucky. During the years, Mr. Wiedemann brought his two son's into the business. His eldest son, Charles, was sent to Munich in 1876-77 to learn the latest European brewing techniques. Upon his return, he was sent to Milwaukee to learn the developing brewing techniques being undertaken by America's leading brewers. He rejoined his father as Superintendent, then as Vice-President. With the death of his father, he was appointed President in 1890. He continued the distinctive brewing tradition with increased modernization, establishment of new markets, and attention to the quality of the beer.

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Gebhard Brewery, Morris Illinois

The Gebhard Brewery consists of the Brewing House and Warehouse Building and the Bottling Plant. The Brewing House and Warehouse Building was erected about 1896 with additions constructed over the next decade. The Brewing House section rises four stories in height and, like the rest of the building, contains a steel frame with common-bond brick walls. The Brewing House and Warehouse Building measures approximately 80' x 60'. None of the brewing equipment remains. The Bottling Plant was erected ca. 1900 and consists of a two-and-one-half-story brick building with an interior wood frame. The building measures approximately 60' x 30' and has a gable roof and a stone foundation. Originally a one-and-one-half story brick building, the Gebhard Brewery, located on West Washington Street near Nettle Creek, was started in 1866 by Louis Gebhard. Gebhard's enterprise was successful, and by 1896 he had erected a large brick and steel building to replace the original building. The new building contained a large brewing room complete with a copper vat. Grain was prepared on the upper floors of the five-story brewing house. Less than ten years later a large brick and steel addition was built off the north facade of the brewing house. Another addition to the brewery, built at the same time, consisted of a two-and-one-half story brick and timber building which served as a bottling plant. William Gebhard succeeded his father in the business and used the wealth generated by the brewery to construct homes and commercial buildings in Morris. The Gebhard family eventually had the most extensive land holdings in the town.

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Minneapolis Brewing Company - Grain Belt Brewery, Minneapolis Minnesota

In 1850, German immigrant John Orth established a brew house near the Mississippi River at the corner of Marshall Street and 13th Avenue NE in the rapidly expanding lumber city of St. Anthony (later Minneapolis). By the time Minnesota achieved statehood in 1858 eleven breweries were conducting business around the state. Two of these were located very close to Orth's company and became his major rivals: Gluek's Brewery had opened just one-half mile north on Marshall Street, and the Krazlein and Mueller Brewery was in business across the river. The establishment of these and other breweries (such as the Sugar Loaf Brewery in Winona, 1860, the August Schell Brewing Company in New Ulm, 1860, and Wolf's Brewery in Stillwater, 1872), reflected the industry's regional growth throughout the Upper Midwest. Expansion of the brewing industry was largely due to an influx of German immigrants who brought a strong brewing tradition and the requisite skills to such cities as Milwaukee, St. Louis, and Minneapolis. An 1862 federal brewing tax, however, adversely impacted the industry, forcing many smaller breweries to close or become absorbed by more successful companies. Between 1880-90, beer production nationwide increased 81 percent, yet the number of breweries decreased 43 percent from 2,191 to 1,248. Consistent with this trend, the Minneapolis Brewing and Malting Company was established in 1890 by the merger of four small Minneapolis breweries: the John Orth Brewing Co., the Heinrich Brewing Association, the Germania Brewing Co., and the F.D. Norenburg Brewing and Malthouse. By 1893, the Minneapolis Brewing and Malting Company adopted the Grain Belt beer label in reference to ...the golden fields of Minnesota ...the tall corn of Iowa...the vast reaches of the Dakotas...the green acres of Wisconsin!...America's Grain Belt. Construction of the brewery complex on Orth's property dramatically boosted the firm's production capacity around the state and region. The company was brewing 500,000 barrels annually by 1900, far greater than Gluek's output of 70,000, and quite respectable in comparison with the nation's leading producers - Milwaukee's Pabst and Schlitz - which had surpassed one million barrels a year.

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