Historic Structures

Wiedemann Brewing Company, Newport Kentucky

The Wiedemann Brewing Company was founded by George Wiedemann. He immigrated to the United States from Germany in 1853. Initially living in New York State and after spending some time in Louisville, Kentucky, he moved to Cincinnati in 1855 when he entered the brewery business. In 1860, Mr. Wiedemann joined with John Kaufman in building a brewery on Vine Street in Cincinnati where he was appointed the foreman. In 1870 he became a partner with John Butcher, who was operating a small brewery on Jefferson Street in Newport, Kentucky. The business began to grow and soon became recognized as a major brewery in northern Kentucky and Cincinnati. In 1878 Wiedemann acquired the entire brewery and he continued to expand its operation. Over the years various buildings were constructed to meet the needs of the growing operation. In 1888 and 1889 construction of modern facilities was undertaken when several buildings were constructed including the Hops Storage building and the Malt House. With increase production capacity, the brewery began to command a greater share of the market. During the period before the turn of the century, Wiedemann acquired several smaller breweries. With these acquitions, the brewery established itself as the major brewery serving northern Kentucky. During the years, Mr. Wiedemann brought his two son's into the business. His eldest son, Charles, was sent to Munich in 1876-77 to learn the latest European brewing techniques. Upon his return, he was sent to Milwaukee to learn the developing brewing techniques being undertaken by America's leading brewers. He rejoined his father as Superintendent, then as Vice-President. With the death of his father, he was appointed President in 1890. He continued the distinctive brewing tradition with increased modernization, establishment of new markets, and attention to the quality of the beer.

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Gebhard Brewery, Morris Illinois

The Gebhard Brewery consists of the Brewing House and Warehouse Building and the Bottling Plant. The Brewing House and Warehouse Building was erected about 1896 with additions constructed over the next decade. The Brewing House section rises four stories in height and, like the rest of the building, contains a steel frame with common-bond brick walls. The Brewing House and Warehouse Building measures approximately 80' x 60'. None of the brewing equipment remains. The Bottling Plant was erected ca. 1900 and consists of a two-and-one-half-story brick building with an interior wood frame. The building measures approximately 60' x 30' and has a gable roof and a stone foundation. Originally a one-and-one-half story brick building, the Gebhard Brewery, located on West Washington Street near Nettle Creek, was started in 1866 by Louis Gebhard. Gebhard's enterprise was successful, and by 1896 he had erected a large brick and steel building to replace the original building. The new building contained a large brewing room complete with a copper vat. Grain was prepared on the upper floors of the five-story brewing house. Less than ten years later a large brick and steel addition was built off the north facade of the brewing house. Another addition to the brewery, built at the same time, consisted of a two-and-one-half story brick and timber building which served as a bottling plant. William Gebhard succeeded his father in the business and used the wealth generated by the brewery to construct homes and commercial buildings in Morris. The Gebhard family eventually had the most extensive land holdings in the town.

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Minneapolis Brewing Company - Grain Belt Brewery, Minneapolis Minnesota

In 1850, German immigrant John Orth established a brew house near the Mississippi River at the corner of Marshall Street and 13th Avenue NE in the rapidly expanding lumber city of St. Anthony (later Minneapolis). By the time Minnesota achieved statehood in 1858 eleven breweries were conducting business around the state. Two of these were located very close to Orth's company and became his major rivals: Gluek's Brewery had opened just one-half mile north on Marshall Street, and the Krazlein and Mueller Brewery was in business across the river. The establishment of these and other breweries (such as the Sugar Loaf Brewery in Winona, 1860, the August Schell Brewing Company in New Ulm, 1860, and Wolf's Brewery in Stillwater, 1872), reflected the industry's regional growth throughout the Upper Midwest. Expansion of the brewing industry was largely due to an influx of German immigrants who brought a strong brewing tradition and the requisite skills to such cities as Milwaukee, St. Louis, and Minneapolis. An 1862 federal brewing tax, however, adversely impacted the industry, forcing many smaller breweries to close or become absorbed by more successful companies. Between 1880-90, beer production nationwide increased 81 percent, yet the number of breweries decreased 43 percent from 2,191 to 1,248. Consistent with this trend, the Minneapolis Brewing and Malting Company was established in 1890 by the merger of four small Minneapolis breweries: the John Orth Brewing Co., the Heinrich Brewing Association, the Germania Brewing Co., and the F.D. Norenburg Brewing and Malthouse. By 1893, the Minneapolis Brewing and Malting Company adopted the Grain Belt beer label in reference to ...the golden fields of Minnesota ...the tall corn of Iowa...the vast reaches of the Dakotas...the green acres of Wisconsin!...America's Grain Belt. Construction of the brewery complex on Orth's property dramatically boosted the firm's production capacity around the state and region. The company was brewing 500,000 barrels annually by 1900, far greater than Gluek's output of 70,000, and quite respectable in comparison with the nation's leading producers - Milwaukee's Pabst and Schlitz - which had surpassed one million barrels a year.

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Cliveden - Chew House, Philadelphia Pennsylvania

The Chew House was built in 1763-64 by Benjamin Chew, then Attorney General of Pennsylvania, at Cliveden, his country estate. With the outbreak of the Revolution, Chew, whose patriotism was doubted, was relieved of his political duties, and was paroled to New Jersey. Thus on October 4, 1777, it was not Chew, but Colonel Musgrave and six companies of British infantry who were occupying Cliveden. This outpost was a full mile in advance of the main British line which Howe had positioned in Germantown to defend Philadelphia from Washington's forces which were encamped on Skippack Creek to the northwest. Washington began his attack on the night of March 3 in a march on Germantown. His forces were divided into two columns, one under Sullivan, and the other under Greene, while Lord Stirling held his troops in reserve. Sullivan arrived at Germantown at dawn, and despite the heavy fog, pushed back the enemy outguards until he reached Cliveden. Greene, however, lost his direction and arrived late on the scene. As the colonials attacked Musgrave barricaded his troops in the Chew House and stoutly resisted the assault. Knox, commanding the American artillery, blew in the main entrance, but his fire had little effect on the solid masonry walls. Musgrave continued to hold out while Sullivan pushed on to attack the main British line. In the ensuing engagement, Sullivan's troops were mistakenly fired upon by fellow soldiers and then for reasons not entirely clear, their line broke. Greene was forced to extricate his forces and retreat back to Skippack Creek. Cliveden had not fallen. The main house is two-and-a-half stories, with a full cellar, and measures 54 by 44 feet in size. The front exhibits the characteristic facade emphasis found in Georgian architecture: the front wall being built of regular ashlar gray stone masonry, and the others of rubble masonry stuccoed and grooved to simulate ashlar. The belt course, window sills, and lintels are made of dressed sandstone, and the lintels are grooved to simulate flatkeyed arches. The gable roof has arched dormers with flanking scrolls, a heavy cornice with prominent modillions, and five large urns are positioned on the roof. The large windows have 24 panes, and panelled shutters adorm the first floor windows.

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Blendon Estate, Owings Mills Maryland

The Blendon Estate is the northernmost portion of the Caves Estate operated by the Carroll family during the 18th and 19th century. The land was first acquired by Dr. Charles Carroll in the 1730's and 1750's. By the time that the original wing of the tenant house and the hank barn on the Blendon section of the estate were constructed in the 19th century, the Caves property had grown to 2,500 acres. Under the ownership of John Henry Carroll (1803-56) and his son John Nicholas Carroll (1847-1926), the Caves was a grain and livestock farm, consisting of multiple fields extending on both sides of what is now Park Heights Avenue and Caves Road. On sloping land such as is found surrounding the site of the tenant house and nearby bank barn, livestock production seems to have been paramount. The tenants of the Carrolls resided in the dwelling and raised the livestock and hay needed for feed in their portion of the estate. Hay was stored in the main level of the barn, and the livestock were kept in pens in the lower level. The Caves mansion house and main cluster of outbuildings stood over a mile to the southwest, across what is now Park Heights Avenue. In 1897, the son of John Henry Carroll, John Nicholas Carroll (1847-1926) defaulted on a mortgage he had taken on the Caves estate, and the tract was sold at auction. The portion containing the tenant house and barn passed in 1925 to Janon Fisher, a retired engineer who resided in the Caves mansion to the south of the parcel containing the barn. In 1935, Fisher and his wife sold the 110 acres surrounding the barn and tenant house immediately to the south to Richard E. Breed, 3rd, President of the General Perm Refining Co. of Baltimore. It was probably Breed who erected the Breed-Krongard House, the large, Neo-Georgian residence that now stands on the top of the hill above the barn. Breed, who lived on the property until selling it in 1946, apparently also remodeled the lower level of the barn to serve as a garage and horse stable. Since 1946 the estate has been known as Blendon, a name that Breed may have given it. Three other families owned Blendon and resided there during the period since World War II.

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